The United Kingdom of Great Britain, Hanover and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK or U.K.) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the northwestern coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the northeastern part of the island of Ireland, the area of Hanover, alternatively Lower Saxony in Germany and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland and Hanover are the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland and the Federal German Republic respectively. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea separates Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom's 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi) were home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.